Te Heuheu's Monument, Pukawa 1861

Kinder has illustrated a highly ornate carved structure that honours Ngati Tuwharetoa.

The monument itself appears to be a synthesis of Maori and Pakeha architectural styles most probably instigated by Iwikau (Te Heuheu Tukino III) who had a more open attitude towards European cultures than his predecessor. Mana whenua can sometimes develop away from the landscape in which it originated; Kinder's watercolour is a case in point. The painted monument survives as a memorial tribute to a rangatira and his people well beyond their lifetimes. It has perpetuated the memory of the Te Heuheu dynasty for a wide audience (including those who view this exhibition) more effectively than the monument itself could ever do. JD

John Kinder 1819 - 1903

Te Heuheu's Monument, Pukawa 1861

Ferrier Watson Collection
The Fletcher Trust on loan to Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tamaki

Despite a very busy life as a teacher and cleric, Kinder was an indefatigable traveller. Having already journeyed extensively into the Bay of Plenty-Rotorua areas in 1857, he made a further trip in 1861 as far as Taupo and another in 1865-66. Sketches and photographs recording his movements at the time were later to form the basis for the careful watercolours he made around 1886, when he was in retirement.

Both of these works record his visit to the south western shores of Lake Taupo, where he was told of the tragic events that befell the Tuwharetoa kahui ariki on 7 May, 1846. Te Heuheu Tukino II, called Mananui, was among 54 people who died when a landslide swept down Kakaramea mountain after heavy rain, destroying the palisaded pa at Te Rapa. Mananui's son, Horonuku, was considered too inexperienced to succeed him so the chief's younger brother, Iwikau, succeeded until 1862, when Horonuku became Te Heuheu Tukino IV. His portrait, painted by Robert Atkinson, is included in this exhibition.

Te Heuheu's monument no longer exists at Pukawa. Iwikau had already built another pa with an ornamented wharenui called Tapeka, at Waihi, near Tokaanu, and it was this that now became, and still remains, the centre of Ngati Tuwharetoa activities. PS

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